The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and the Palestinians and is part of the wider Arab–Israeli conflict. At present, major polls show the vast majority of Israelis and Palestinians agree a two-state solution is the best way to end the conflict. Most Palestinians view the West Bank and Gaza Strip as their future state, and most Israelis agree.
The negotiating parties have been the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The official negotiations are mediated by an international contingent known as the Quartet on the Middle East (the Quartet) represented by a special envoy that consists of the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations. The Arab League, another important actor, has proposed an alternative peace plan. Egypt, a founding member of the Arab League, has historically been a key participant. The United States has been an ardent supporter of Israel often taking positions against UN Resolutions condemning the actions of Israel. Since 2006, the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between the two major factions: Fatah, the largest party, and Hamas. As a result, the territory controlled by the Palestinian National Authority (the Palestinian interim government) is split between Fatah in the West Bank and Hamas in the Gaza strip. Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by Israel and the United States although it won the Palestinian elections of 2006; therefore, it has not been allowed to participate in official negotiations. The Palestinians are an occupied people living in refugee camps often without sufficient food, potable water, electricity, adequate medical care, or work. Peace negotiations began at nnapolis, Maryland, United States, in November 2007. No final solution occurred. The parties agree there are six 'final status' issues which need to be resolved: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, security, borders and water.
Causes of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict The Palestinian--Israeli conflict stems from competing Jewish and Arab claims to the land in Palestine (the Zionist occupation of Palestinian land), conflicting promises by the British in the forms of the HusseinMcMahon Correspondence and the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and several outbreaks of violence between Jewish and Arab residents of the region of Palestine. The roots of the conflict can be traced to the late 19th century, which saw a rise in national movements, including Zionism and Arab nationalism. Zionism, the Jewish national movement, was established as a political movement in 1897, largely as a response to Russian and European anti-Semitism. It sought the establishment of a Jewish Nation-State in Palestine so that they might find sanctuary and selfdetermination there. The World Zionist Organization and the Jewish National Fund encouraged immigration and funded purchase of land under Ottoman rule and under British rule in the region of Palestine. In the 1870s, a wave of anti-Semitism spurred a new migration from central Europe, and in 1898, Theodore Hertzl organized a Zionist international movement to establish in Palestine a home for the Jewish People secured by public law. Thousands of Palestinians were already living in Palestine as their descendants had done so for centuries. In 1917, Arthur James Balfour, as Foreign Secretary, authored the Balfour Declaration, which supported the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The Balfour Declaration pledged England’s support of Zionist goals in order to win support of international, especially American, Jews to the Allies during World War I. In 1916, one year prior to the Balfour Declaration, a secret agreement was made between the British War Cabinet and Zionist leaders promising the latter a “national home” in Palestine in consideration of their efforts to bring the United States into World War I on the side of Great Britain. Following...
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