Non-verbal Communications

Topics: Paul Ekman, Nonverbal communication, Emotion Pages: 15 (2563 words) Published: October 12, 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS
part a – article review2
part b – video reflection7
appendix10
reference15

Communication has two main elements, verbal (that is speech) and non-verbal, which can include posture, gesture, gaze, facial expression and form of writing. Communication through the forms of speech is seen to rarely without non-verbal cues (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011), even telephone calls have some non-verbal cues such as tone and pitch which can allow the speaker to convey their emotions. However, there are non-verbal forms of communication that do not involve the element of speech, or even be face-to-face, such as emails and letters, these forms of communication lack the element of verbal communication. Non-verbal cues are universally used and have a significant role in communication, as they are aids to understand and interpret conversations and also help convey feedback (Halbe, 2012). Morand (2001, p. 22) in the article The Emotional Intelligence of Managers: Assessing the Construct of Validity of a Nonverbal Measure of “People Skills” focuses on a research conducted to observe “individual differences in the ability to recongise facial displays of emotions in others”, that is if the managers within the research have the skill of “emotional intelligence”. Emotional intelligence is believe to be one of many types of intelligences that use different areas of the brain and is the viewed as have the ability to observe and distinguish an individual’s own and other’s emotional state (Morand, 2001). This ability is applied to viewing another’s kinesics, which is bodily posture and hand gesture, or prosodics, such as vocal pitch and tone. This article (Morand, 2001) examines whether a participant can identify emotions of a person on a photo. These photos, which are shown to participants for a period of one second, displays one of six universal emotions: anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust and sadness. The results of the research indicate that there is emotional intelligence present in the minds of people through the skill of detecting and analysing non-verbal cues shown by individuals, in this instance through facial expression on photographs. Though the research was found to be successful in correlating three out of four hypothesised variables, this research was carried out in a laboratory and there was a limit of 17 photographs (Morand, 2001). Future research that may be conducted for the same reasons could consider the placement of the research, that is, it should be conducted in the field setting, such as a professional office or a service sector of a business which has greater interpersonal interactions that may be seen between employees or employees and consumers. Furthermore, if the setting remains to be within a laboratory and participants are continued to be shown photographs, the photographs collection could be increase and have a greater supply of faces that appear that represent one of the six emotions.

Facial gestures is one of the most significant form of expressing emotion externally (Chóliz & Fernández-Abascal, 2012). These facial gestures are also significant in social communication, distinguishing emotions from other internal psychological processes. In the article Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions: the Role of Facial and Contextual Information in the Accuracy of Recognition, research was perform to find and analyse the accuracy of facial recognition for the six basic emotions, similar to the Morand (2012) article mentioned above. However this experiment was taken to a second step of analysing the effect of information on the accuracy of facial expression recognition, which involve authors to provide participants with short pieces of either congruent or incongruent information (Chóliz et al, 2012). The method of experiment 1 was to have the 96 participants view thirty photographs of faces, each portraying on of the basic emotions, which was shown for a three second period, and...
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