World War One PLAN
How did the July crisis end up in war?
A series of miscalculations
“We all stumbled into war”
Imperialism led to Continental tensions, BALKAN TENSION
* Austria hungry and Serbia over the Balkans
* Neutralize Serbia as an antagonistic force on their borders * Balkan tensions, the erosion of the Hapsburg and ottoman empire * The assassination provided an excuse for war, ease of Balkan tensions, Russia also wanted this * Was this “just another Balkan war”?
* Increasing competition and desire for great power led to an increase in confrontation that helped push the war into ww1 by hardening alliances…. * Prime Minister Tisza was aware of the possibility that a war with Serbia could rapidly escalate into a general European conflict as a consequence of the treaty system
Increase in nationalism, demonstrated by Increased militarism, caused the hardening of alliances (along with colonial tensions) * Increase in militarism rapidly escalates continental tensions, naval and army build up * Dreadnought race, Britain and Germany
* Figures to show this:
Britain increased spending by 117%, military size increased to 430000 France increased spending by 92%, military size increased to 970000 Germany increased spending by 158%, military size increased to 760000 A/H, 160%, 480000
Russia, 19% 1500000
* Fuels tensions and mean military has an increasing say in government policy, relates to the way governments handle the July crisis * Moroccan crisis, strengthened France and Britain’s entente over mutual suspicion of Germany * France and Russia form an alliance because they were both isolated, wanted support * A/H and Germany – buffer zones to save from Russia
* Russia and Serbia, to confirm Russia power in Balkans
Failure of diplomacy and poor military management
* Russian mobilization in reaction to Austria Hungary declaring war on Serbia escalated this “Balkan crisis” and turned it into ww1. * Tsar Nicolas claimed it was too late to stop mobilization – it wasn’t * Germany couldn’t change train timetables or change their Schifflen plan- things can always be changed, this wasn’t impossible as they claimed * Leaders let their ministers of war and foreign affairs come up with these plans but did not consider the implications these would have * Eg) Germany wanting “safe passage” through Belgium, this would surely antagonize Britain and bring about the possibility of them entering the war? * Italy showed it was not impossible to escape becoming involved * Moroccan crises- Germanys exclusion from Algeciras, Spain, conference that was to conclude an agreement about Morocco lead them to reject the conference Britain proposed about the settlement of Balkan tension
Naivety about the possible consequences of war
* During the July crisis, key national leaders are not present, Franz joseph goes hunting, German Kaiser on yacht, French politicians are away * Lack of modern strategy to deal with technological improvements * Lloyd George “we all stumbled into war”
* A series of miscalculations and lack of consideration for the possible implications of each decision *
* Discuss the part played by 2 countries in the outbreak of WW1 (excluding Germany)
A/H and France
As the first country to declare war in 1914 A/H’s role was significant in activating a series of reactions among all the continental powers in response to the assassination crisis. A/H and Frances’ contribution reflects the increasing reliance on militarism rather than diplomacy that had become obvious in a number of pre-war crises. A/h’s actions also demonstrate the miscalculation which saw “yet another Balkan crisis” escalate into a continental conflict.
Militarism : Dreadnought race, expenditure on militarism, reliance on militarism rather than diplomacy is most obvious in the Moroccan crises. Sending a gunboat instead of...
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