Bribe and corruption in pharmaceutical industry across cultural differences and ethical values in China.
Table of Contents
CONFUCIANISM, HISTORY OF CORRUPTION AND WHAT HAPPENED IN CHINA
3 INTERCULTURAL ISSUES AND ETHIC VALUES TO ENTANGLE THE WHOLE GAME
The Pharmaceutical Industry is one of the biggest one in the world and one of the most advanced in terms of technology and development. Such industry has suddenly developed and found its way in developing countries in the last three decades. As history tells us, big companies make big money and, in order to get to this abundance, often companies, individuals and people need to involve many parties. In this eassy, I will focus on China and its pharmaceutical industry, as well as the effect that BigPharmas1 have had inside the country. We will then take a look at the bribery and corruption side of the industry, which is at a focal point in this society, and I will show the“whys“, through looking at the confucianism‘s values. I will give an excursus on what corruption has gone through in history, starting from ancient Greece to nowdays, looking at the differences and the applications across centuries that individuals have had of such practices to finally arrive to a global understanding of corruption in the Chinese culture and more specifically in the pharmaceutical industry. I will then analyze the Chinese society, with a particular focus on business, through Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory, which will enable us to compare such way of doing to the rest of the world and I will answear to some particular questions that arise from the Trompenaar’s model of national cultural differences. After having analyzed the intercultural factors that define a specific culture, I will build a bridge, through the analysis of ethical relativism, that will take us to the ethic aspects of corruption in China. To better analyze the ethical aspect, I will be using the stakeholder theory, which will allow us to clearly build the framework where the scandals are happening and I will take a look to the CSR model that Chinese companies or foreign companies in China are using. I will finally analyze, from a very objective but personal point of view, which gaps permitted the “practice“ of bribing, find out who has been the scapegoat that made this system of bribing and corruption become of common practice.
CONFUCIANISM, HISTORY OF CORRUPTION AND WHAT HAPPENED IN CHINA “Confucianism ethics is basically humanistic, obligations based, and collectivistic in nature (Chan, 1963; Ip, 1996,2004 as cited in Ip, 2009).“ As a matter of fact, the primary concern of this philosophy, initiated by Confucius2, looks at human beings as its primary concern and it looks straight forward to the present world and its needs. It is collectivistic because it gives importance to the individuals as a group, above each single one of them. This diatribe, being a society built upon single individuals, is one of the oldest one in the world, if not the oldest one. If we consider the real human world the one that was born when society started, it sounds like an oxymoron. Society was made upon single individuals, but being and behaving like individuals and being and behaving like a society is very different, it is surprisingly amazing how the two terms combined together gave birth to what it is today’s world. Finally, it is obligation-based because obligation exchanges are at the base of such kind of society and this particular aspect will be our break-through in the essay. Confucianism relies on the “golden rule” that says that is wrong to do to other people what you do not wish for yourself and it also aims to achieve personal and moral development through helping other individuals. As Confucius himself demonstrated, Confucianism is a mix of diligence in action and duties, hardworking, prudence related...
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